Discovering Science 8

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Unit 1 Water Systems on Earth
Unit 2 Optics
Unit 3 Fluids
Unit 4 Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Systems
Science Skills, Glossary, Index, Credits

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Page 9
If all the water in the atmosphere rained down at once, it would only cover the ground with a depth of 2.5 cm. Find out more about each part of the water cycle.

Summary of the Water Cycle
This set of web pages from the U.S. Geological Survey is filled to the brim with information.

The Hydrologic Cycle
Environment Canada provides a summary of the water cycle and its components.

Precipitation Education
NASA puts together the parts of the water cycle.

Page 24
In some areas in the Antarctic, the ice is over 4 200 m thick. Learn more interesting facts about glaciers.

Our Environment: Glaciers – Interactive
Learn about glaciers from this Canadian site supported by the Royal Canadian Geographical Society.

All About Glaciers
The National Snow & Ice Data Center provides comprehensive information about glaciers here.

Page 42
Scientists estimate there are over 10 000 underwater volcanoes. Find out how Canadian Technology is helping to investigate some of them.

ROPOS – Canadian Scientific Submersible Facility
Learn about ROPOS, Canada’s premier remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV), here.

Page 47
Right now, there are scientists living under the sea and studying the oceans. Find out more about Aquarius, the only undersea laboratory.

Aquarius Underwater Laboratory
Visit Aquarius through these two websites.

Page 56
Water travelling in some currents can take decades to make it back to where it started! Find out more about ocean currents.

The Great Ocean Currents
Read about ocean currents and their relationship with climate.

NOAA Ocean Service Education provides an authoritative and wide-ranging exploration of ocean currents.

Page 62
Find out more about the Marine Institute at Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Marine Institute
Learn about Fisheries and Marine Institute of Memorial University of Newfoundland here.

Page 83
Of all the major Canadian cities, St. John’s has the most fog, rain, snow, wind, and cloudy days! Find out more about how the ocean currents affect Newfoundland and Labrador’s climate.

Cold Ocean
The Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage website provides an overview of the impact of climate and location on heritage.

The Weather in the Northwest Atlantic
Learn about the province’s weather and its relation to ocean currents from the province’s website.

Page 94
The heart of an adult blue whale is as large as a small car. Find out more about the blue whale and other ocean creatures.

Marine Mammals
Use this webpage as a starting point to find out about blue whales and other mammals of the ocean.

Mammals of the Sea
Get an overview of sea mammals all on one webpage.

Page 103
More than 80 percent of Canadians, including those who live in Newfoundland and Labrador, live in areas with high acid rain pollution levels. Find out more about acid rain in your area.

Acid Rain Program
Learn about the acid rain monitoring program run by the province.

Acid Rain – A Newfoundland and Labrador Perspective
Read this publication about acid rain from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

Page 129
Four main types of light sources are incandescence, electrical discharge, fluorescence, and phosphorescence. Find out how each of these processes produces light.

Types of Light Sources and Light Bulbs
Learn about light sources here.

Making Light
This online book from one of the world’s foremost technology-products companies can help you learn all about light and its sources.

Page 140
With sound waves, frequency is related to musical pitch. Find out more about the frequencies
of musical notes.

Pitch and Frequency
Learn about the physics of sound waves and music here.

First Music Lesson

Page 152
Only three numbers are needed to specify every colour that can be produced on a computer screen. People who create web pages sometimes specify colours this way.

Colors on a Computer Screen
Learn how computer colours are made.

RGB Color Codes Chart
This interactive chart lets you determine hex and decimal colour codes.

Page 162
Light from the Sun is produced by nuclear fusion of hydrogen particles. This process releases an enormous amount of energy. Find out more about nuclear fusion and temperatures in the Sun.

The Sun’s Structure and Nuclear Fusion

How the Sun Works

Fusion in the Sun
These websites and pages outline the Sun’s fusion process.

Page 174
You may have seen a one-way mirror (sometimes called a two-way mirror). If you stand on the brightly lit side of the mirror you see your own reflection. If you stand on the darker side of the
mirror you can see through it, like a transparent window. Find out how it is possible to see through one way but not both ways.

One-Way / Two-Way Mirror
Find out about one-way/two-way mirrors from a company that manufacturers them.

How do one-way mirrors work?
The people at HowStuffWorks explain one-way/two-way mirrors.

Page 182
The mirages that you sometimes see on the road on a very hot day are also caused by the refraction of the Sun’s rays. Learn more about mirages.

Read about the physics of mirages.

How Mirages Work
Mirages simply explained

Page 202
There are many simulations on the internet that show you mirrors, objects, ray diagrams, and images.

Reflection and the Ray Model of Light

Introduction to Mirrors
Use the simulations from either or both of these websites to investigate mirrors and images. (Note: Java required.)

Page 221
There are many simulations of lenses on the Internet.

NIKKOR Lens Simulator


Lenses and Mirrors
Use the simulations from any or all of these websites to investigate mirrors and images. (Note: Java required in some cases.)

Page 231
An optical or visual illusion tricks the eye and brain into perceiving something unlike what actually exists. Check out examples of optical illusions and find out what they reveal about the way we see.

These Optical Illusions Trick Your Brain With Science
Some great optical illusions can be observed here.

You can try your hand (or brain) at more than 30 illusions here.

Optical Illusions & Visual Phenomena
More than 100 optical illusions can be sampled here.

Page 247
Find out more about the Hubble Space Telescope, the images it has produced, and Canada’s role in servicing the telescope.

Team Hubble: Servicing Missions

Servicing missions (including those involving Canada) and all things Hubble can be found here.

Page 279
The art of glass blowing has been around for over 2000 years. See how artists use the different
changes of state in glass to create works of art.

Glass Blowing
For glass-blowing, videos are especially appropriate. Watch this ancient art/craft come to life.

Page 286

Motor oils can be purchased in different viscosities. Find out what the viscosity label ratings on motor oil mean.

How To Pick the Right Motor Oil for Your Car

Automotive Oil
Learn what the different grades of motor oil mean from either or both of these websites.

Page 341

Not too long ago, naval forces worked entirely above the surface of the water. Now, crews can spend months at a time in the deep depths of water in submarines. Find out more about

Living and Working on a Submarine
Use these websites to get a sense of what it is like to live and work on a submarine.

Page 354

Submersibles are underwater vehicles capable of allowing humans to go down 2000 m below the ocean’s surface. Find out what scientists are finding at these depths.

Piloted and remotely controlled submersibles enable scientists to search where no one has gone before. Choose any or all of these sites to explore the technology and the depths.

Page 422
Onion skin tissue is a type of tissue called epidermal tissue. Investigate other kinds of tissues that plants have.

Plant Tissues
Find out about plant tissues from either or both of these web pages.

Page 451
The two types of kidney dialysis are called hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Find out how these types of dialysis are similar and different.

Comparison of Dialysis Methods
This medical website compares the advantages and disadvantages using a table format.

National Kidney Foundation
This web page provides a more detailed discussion of peritoneal dialysis.